Weather- Just how does it happen?

By Dr Geoff Duffy  
Retired Professor of Chemical Engineering
DEng, PhD, BSc, ASTC Dip, FRSNZ, FIChemE

Terry Dunleavy writes: 

In the 22 years since I co-founded the New Zealand Climate Science Coalition to counter the false propaganda about what was then called “dangerous anthropogenic global warning” (DAGW) now called simply “climate change” in the subsequent absence of the alleged warming, I have read scores of papers, articles and essays from many well-qualified scientists, all demonstrating that DAGW is nothing more than computer-modelled over-hyping of natural variations in wealthier patterns that we have experienced and managed for centuries.

 

But it has still taken until now for a simple, succinct, compellingly science-based essay to convince lay-people that there is no “climate crisis” and we have no need to become paupers or irreparably damage our farming industries.

 

And this essay comes from one of our own, a New Zealander, Dr Geoff Duffy, Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering at University of Auckland, and deservedly a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand.

 

If you read nothing else, this weekend, make sure to read what Professor Duffy has written below:

All heat energy initially comes, not as heat, but as radiant energy from the Sun. Then a portion of the radiation, namely infrared radiation, directly produces heat in the sea, land, and parts of the atmosphere. The other arriving radiation (50% visible light and ultraviolet radiation) also impacts us on earth in other ways.

More than 2/3 of the earth’s surface is ocean, so solar energy arriving in daylight hours causes a lot of water to evaporate. The evaporated water-vapor (really a gas) rises, cools and condenses to form clouds (minute water droplets). 

In fact, as both air pressure and air density decrease with increasing elevation, the temperature drops about 6 degrees for every kilometer rise, promoting condensation and cloud formation.

Clouds cover almost 2/3 of the planet at any one time. Some cloud water droplets amalgamate to produce bigger droplets that then fall by gravity as rain. Rain (as well as snow or hail) cool the air, then the land and sea.  

Hence, our ‘liquid-water and water-vapor’ recycle-system adjusts to the changes and is self-correcting, self-adapting, and self-buffering in our shifting weather processes. Indeed, this is the natural water cycle, that helps stabilize and moderate the entire planet’s weather system and behavior.        

Radiation does even more with water than just evaporation!  A few atmospheric gases (called greenhouse gases GHG’s), can absorb and instantly re-radiate some specific portions of solar infrared radiation as well as some back-radiation returning from the Earth.  

Water vapor gas is the strongest GHG by far, and is actually far higher in concentration than all other GHG’s combined (24 times higher).

Unfortunately, it is often overlooked as the weather sentinel, or even totally disregarded in preference for other natural GHG’s. What also makes an amazing difference is that it is the only atmospheric gas that condenses (gas to liquid or solid ice).

After water vapor, the next two significant greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide and methane which are mostly produced in nature (vegetation, animals, ocean floor).  

Amazingly, about 95% of atmospheric carbon dioxide actually comes from nature. Unfortunately, these gases are also produced by combustion processes, motor vehicle exhausts, power stations, and industrial processes. Although they contribute very little to the overall effective eventual ‘warming’ of the atmosphere and changes in weather, because of their extremely low concentrations, they are unfortunately credited and unjustly blamed as the primary causes of Climate Change (a long-term average of all weather changes: not just temperature).

Unlike water vapor, these GHG’s are uniformly distributed, easily measured, held responsible as the main culprits, and thus made taxable! Consequently, many countries are trying to either cut back or eliminate the use of coal, natural gas, and oil, although these produce a very small amount of these low-concentration GHG’s in the atmosphere.  

Actually coal, oil, and natural gas currently supply 80% of the total world’s energy for transport and electricity generation.  At the moment, there is no sizeable alternative in sight, except possibly for nuclear energy for electrical power generation.

Solar and wind energy are intermittent and contribute far less than 5% in power generation worldwide, and the percentage is unlikely to increase markedly as the population grows.

The land also heats up as well and warms the air contacting it.  With both the warmer land and seas, we get breezes, hot moist air rising (thermals), winds, storms, hurricanes, rain, snow, and more.

These changes are huge worldwide and dictate our weather and hence the climate patterns.  Of course, there is a lot more to consider, like overnight and seasonal effects.  Weather at a location also depends on how close we live to the ocean shore, how far inland, or if we live on hills or mountains.

Thus, changes in weather and the subsequent climate patterns produced, result from far more than just direct solar radiation impacting water and water vapor.  

Clouds act as parasols (sun-umbrellas) on hot sunny days, then dump rain or snow all over the world at the amazing rate of 13 million metric ton per second, to cool the air and planet.

The rotating earth produces global air movements, winds, storms, rain, hurricanes, as well as El Ninos, La Ninjas, ocean currents and ocean conveyor belts, large oscillating jet streams, and more.

There are underwater volcanoes from tectonic plate shifts, and extra effects from sunspots and solar wind (particles travelling through space) that can impact our weather as well.  

It is complex, impossible to control, and impossible to change!  Radiation important?  Yes!  But there is certainly far more that we must consider to get the bigger picture!

A FEW FACTS

SOME COMMENTS ON TEMPERATURES

The average temperature has gone up just over 1 C in 100 years.

Temperatures go up and down 5 to 10 C, or more, every day, so that really is not a big deal!

If you step out from the shade on a sunny day, you experience a 10 C or so increase.

The alarm of an increase of 1-plus/100y cannot be justified as catastrophic!


100-plus years ago:

-There were not many weather stations worldwide. They covered less than 2% of the world land area.

- Above the entire ocean area (71% of the planet’s surface), there were no air temperature measurements at all!

- Thermometers were used only on land. Many were not 1) high quality, 2) properly-calibrated, or 3) cross-checked.

- The only accurate and objective data are 42 years of satellite data since 1979, called UAH satellite series.

The below UAH graph indicates much lower temperatures than of computer-generated graphs, which are based on subjective, agenda-driven, massaged and adjusted data. 


Thus, the BASE-POINT of the 100y-old temperature reference from which to judge what has happened during the past 100 years is extremely dubious, to say the least.


SOME MORE FACTS

Carbon dioxide is not dangerous. It is about 0.042% in the atmosphere, 4% in exhaled breath,

0.2% in an auditorium or a pub, or 5 times greater than in the atmosphere, 0.4 to 0.5% in a submarine, or more than 10 times greater than in the atmosphere. 

Submariners live in that safe CO2 environment for periods of 6 months or so.

 

Sea levels have been measured worldwide for well over a century and the level-increase is only about 2mm/year (or less). Some land areas like in Scandinavia are actually subsiding (sinking). There is no sea-level crisis anywhere in the world, and no sudden upsurge has been recorded anywhere in the world.

 

Artic and Antarctic sea-ice areas and thickness are on average the same for the last 50 years, and within the normal annual ranges. There are no sudden changes anywhere.

 

Floating-ice shelf areas larger than the size of Australia melt every 6 months, and are reinstated in the next months at BOTH poles.

 

Carbon dioxide is the vital ‘food stock’ for all plants, shrubs, crops, and trees. The small increase in carbon dioxide over the last few decades has marvelously caused ‘global greening’, and crop and vegetable yields have risen 15 to 30 percent.

 

In the Netherlands, etc., carbon dioxide is fed to Green Houses to increase plant and crop growth rates! 

Carbon dioxide has been a real boon in all food-producing countries in the world.

 

It is important to understand water vapor is over 20 times higher in concentration than carbon dioxide, and is over 50 times more effective with all radiation.

 

Water vapor is over 5,000 higher in concentration than methane, and more than 4,000 more effective with all radiation.

 

THE REAL PROBLEMS

 

The real problems are not the gases themselves, such as carbon dioxide, or methane from farming, or from vehicles, or industry, but from incomplete combustion and atmospheric pollution (both chemicals and particles). Worldwide biomass burning is a major culprit.

 

Pollutants, such as heavy metals, unburned carbon particles, dioxins, organic chemicals, like benzene and fluorocarbons, toxins, and many more, can come from natural fires, all combustion process, industry, volcanic eruptions, and more.

Sea levels have been measured worldwide for well over a century and the level-increase is only about 2mm/year (or less). Some land areas like in Scandinavia are actually subsiding.

 

There is no sea-level crisis anywhere in the world, and no sudden upsurge has been recorded anywhere at all in the world.

 

Artic and Antarctic sea-ice areas and thickness are on average the same for the last 50 years, and within the normal annual ranges. There are no sudden changes anywhere.

 

Floating-ice shelf areas, larger than the size of Australia, melt every 6 months, and are reinstated in the next months at BOTH poles.

 

Carbon dioxide is the vital ‘food stock’ for all plants, shrubs, crops, and trees. The small increase in carbon dioxide over the last few decades has marvelously caused ‘global greening’, and crop and vegetable yields have risen 15 to 30 percent.

 

In the Netherlands, etc., carbon dioxide is fed to Green Houses to increase plant and crop growth rates! Carbon dioxide has been a real boon in all food producing countries in the world.

 

It is important to understand water vapor is over 20 times higher in concentration than carbon dioxide, and is over 50 times more effective with all radiation.

 

Water vapor is over 5,000 higher in concentration than methane, and over 4,000 more effective with all radiation.

APPENDIX 1

 

These articles contain significant information regarding grid-scale battery systems

 

BATTERY SYSTEM CAPITAL COSTS, OPERATING COSTS, ENERGY LOSSES, AND AGING

https://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/battery-system-capital...

 

GRID-SCALE BATTERY SYSTEMS IN NEW ENGLAND TO COUNTERACT SHORTFALL OF ONE-DAY WIND/SOLAR LULL

https://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/grid-scale-battery-sys...

 

COLD WEATHER OPERATION IN NEW ENGLAND DECEMBER 24, 2017 TO JANUARY 8, 2018

https://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/cold-weather-operation...

 

APPENDIX 2

New Surface Stations Report Released – It’s ‘worse than we thought’

https://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/new-surface-stations-r...

 

APPENDIX 3

Weather- Just how does it happen?

https://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/weather-just-how-does-...

 

APPENDIX 4

Satellites and balloons measure temperatures of the Troposphere, which starts at ground level, and has an average height of 59000 ft at the tropics, 56000 ft at the middle latitudes, and 20000 ft at the poles. Above those levels starts the Stratosphere.

Balloons directly measure temperatures. Satellites measure radiation, from which temperatures are calculated. They consistently measure much lower temperatures than the average of 102 computer-generated graphs.

See Appendix 2 and 3

 

The shown data in the below is for a 43-y period:

 

1) Satellite and balloon readings increasing from 0.00 to 0.5 C, or, or 0.116 C/decade 

2) Computer-generated graphs increasing from 0.00 to 1.20 C; or 0.28 C/decade, about 2.7 TIMES AS FAST

 

NOTE: Behind the 102 computer graphs are hundreds of organizations that likely receive a significant part of their revenues from governments and subsidy-receiving wind, solar, battery, etc., businesses. The livelihood and prospects of the people creating these graphs is more secure, if they aim high, rather than low.

https://www.scienceunderattack.com/blog/2021/2/22/latest-computer-c...

 

The below image shows a more-detailed image of 43 years of satellite data.

The temperature data by satellites and balloons are more accurate than land-based measurements.

See Appendix 2 and URL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UAH_satellite_temperature_dataset

Satellite measurements are made many times during every day and systematically cover almost the entire world; +/- 85-degree latitude.

The satellite data is vastly more complete, and accurate than would be gathered by ground stations (See Appendix 2) 

Balloon measurements, made on a sampling basis, are vastly less complete than satellite measurements, but they serve as a useful crosscheck on the satellite measurements. 

 

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Comment by Dan McKay on August 1, 2022 at 7:12pm

Wow, Impressive stuff

 

Maine as Third World Country:

CMP Transmission Rate Skyrockets 19.6% Due to Wind Power

 

Click here to read how the Maine ratepayer has been sold down the river by the Angus King cabal.

Maine Center For Public Interest Reporting – Three Part Series: A CRITICAL LOOK AT MAINE’S WIND ACT

******** IF LINKS BELOW DON'T WORK, GOOGLE THEM*********

(excerpts) From Part 1 – On Maine’s Wind Law “Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine if the law’s goals were met." . – Maine Center for Public Interest Reporting, August 2010 https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/From Part 2 – On Wind and Oil Yet using wind energy doesn’t lower dependence on imported foreign oil. That’s because the majority of imported oil in Maine is used for heating and transportation. And switching our dependence from foreign oil to Maine-produced electricity isn’t likely to happen very soon, says Bartlett. “Right now, people can’t switch to electric cars and heating – if they did, we’d be in trouble.” So was one of the fundamental premises of the task force false, or at least misleading?" https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-swept-task-force-set-the-rules/From Part 3 – On Wind-Required New Transmission Lines Finally, the building of enormous, high-voltage transmission lines that the regional electricity system operator says are required to move substantial amounts of wind power to markets south of Maine was never even discussed by the task force – an omission that Mills said will come to haunt the state.“If you try to put 2,500 or 3,000 megawatts in northern or eastern Maine – oh, my god, try to build the transmission!” said Mills. “It’s not just the towers, it’s the lines – that’s when I begin to think that the goal is a little farfetched.” https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/flaws-in-bill-like-skating-with-dull-skates/

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Hannah Pingree on the Maine expedited wind law

Hannah Pingree - Director of Maine's Office of Innovation and the Future

"Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine."

https://pinetreewatch.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/

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