LAND AND SEA AREA FOR VARIOUS ENERGY SOURCES

The areas occupied by power systems for electricity generation by various energy sources for 60 years are shown in table 1. Wind and solar have short lives, i.e., 20 to 25 years, but nuclear has a life of about 60 years. Any large-scale build-out of wind and solar would have a much larger “footprint” area than nuclear.

 

- Nuclear produces 84 times more electricity per acre than solar during 60 years.

- Nuclear produces 612 times more electricity per acre than onshore wind during 60 years

- Nuclear produces 980 times more electricity per acre than offshore wind during 60 years

 

In addition:

 

- All PV panels would be replaced in about year 25 and year 50, which would reduce generation during a 60-y period.

- Onshore wind turbines would require major refurbishment and replacement in about year 25 and year 50, which would reduce generation during a 60-y period, based on European onshore wind experience.

- Offshore wind turbines would require major refurbishment and replacement in about year 20 and year 40, and year 60, which would reduce generation during the 60-y period, based on European offshore wind experience.

http://energyskeptic.com/2018/wind/?fbclid=IwAR3u-kxMrxTGSDHNBS-_-E...

 

Table 1/Land area

Acre/MW

CF

Generation at site

Generation at site

Nuclear

 MWh/acre/y

MWh/acre/60y

Times better

Nuclear

0.5

0.90

15779

946728

1

Solar, field-mounted

7

0.15

188

11271

84

Wind, onshore

102

0.30

26

1547

612

Wind, offshore

245

0.45

16

966

980

CF = capacity factor

Offshore wind has high acreage/MW, due to spacing requirements to minimize shadowing, and onshore wind due to setback requirements to reduce noise impacts on nearby people.

https://www.4coffshore.com/windfarms/vineyard-wind-united-states-us...

 

Table 2/Offshore

Vineyard Wind 1

MW

Project capacity, MW

800

Project area, sq mile

306

Turbine capacity, MW

 

8 - 10

Turbine height, ft

 

700 - 750

Area, acre

306 x 640

195840

Area, acre/MW

195840/800

245

.

Onshore, ridgeline

Turbine capacity, MW

3

Turbine height, ft

 

500

Project turbines

21

Project capacity, MW

3 x 21

63

Turbines/mile

7

Turbine spacing, ft

5280/7

754

Ridgeline length, mile

21/7

3

Ridgeline setback, mile

1

Land area length, mile

5

Land area width, mile

2

Land area, acre

2 x 5 x 640

6400

Area, acre/MW

6400/63

102

 

Area For World Electricity Generation

 

World electricity generation was about 25000 TWh in 2017. An assumed generation mix and areas are shown in table 3. Nuclear would require about 619 sq miles to generated 25% of the world’s electricity generation in 2017. Wind and solar would require much larger areas.

 

- Nuclear would require only 1% of the land area of New York State to generate 25%, of the world's electricity . 

- (Solar 1.1 + Onshore wind 4.01 + Offshore wind 6.43)/2 = 11.54/2 = 5.77 times the land area of New York State to generate 25% of the world's electricity.

- Subsidizing the build-outs of wind and solar, instead of nuclear is lunacy to the nth degree. See table 3

https://yearbook.enerdata.net/electricity/world-electricity-product...

 

Table3/World generation mix

 

 

 

 

 

 

%

TWh/y

Nuclear

25

6250

Solar

25

6250

Wind, onshore

12.5

3125

Wind, offshore

12.5

3125

Hydro and other

25

6250

Total

100

25000

47190 sq mi land

Acre/MW

CF

Generation

Area

Area

New York State

MWh/acre/y

Acre

Sq mi

Fraction

Nuclear

0.5

0.90

15779

396101

619

0.013

Solar, field-mounted

7

0.15

188

33272492

51988

1.102

Wind, onshore

102

0.30

26

121206936

189386

4.013

Wind, offshore

245

0.45

16

194089538

303265

6.426

Capital Cost Comparison of Nuclear, Solar, Wind onshore, Wind offshore

- Each energy source provides 25% of the world’s electricity generation.

- A standard nuclear plant is assumed at 2000 MW on 1000 acres.

- Nuclear requires 1.31%; solar 110%; wind onshore 803%; and wind offshore 1285% of New York State land area.

- Grid expansion is assumed at 15% of plant capital cost for all energy sources

- Solar and wind require energy storage for peaking, filling in and balancing, or gas turbines that can quickly vary their outputs to compensate for the variable, intermittent outputs of weather/sun-dependent wind and solar. See Appendix.

- Subsidizing the build-outs of wind and solar, instead of nuclear is lunacy to the nth degree. See table 4.

 

Table 4

Nuclear

Solar

Wind, onshore

Wind, offshore

Plant capacity, MW

2000

100

100

250

Acre/MW

0.5

7

102

245

Plant site area, acre

1000

700

10200

61250

h/y

8766

8766

8766

8766

CF

0.90

0.15

0.30

0.45

Plant generation, MWh/y

15778800

131490

262980

986175

Generation, MWh/acre/y

15779

188

26

16

World generation, TWh/y

25000

25000

25000

25000

25% of World, TWh/y

6250

6250

6250

6250

Plant area, acre

396101

33272492

242413872

388179076

Plant area, sq mile

619

51988

378772

606530

New York State land area, sq mi

47190

47190

47190

47190

Percent of NYS land area

1.31

110

803

1285

Number of plants

396

47532

23766

6338

Cost, $million/MW

5.00

2.00

2.50

4.00

Capital cost per plant, $billion

10.00

0.20

0.25

1.00

Grid, 0.15 of plant cost, $billion

1.50

0.03

0.04

0.15

Total plant cost, $billion

11.50

0.23

0.29

1.15

Capital cost, $billion

4555

10932

6833

7288

Energy Storage

 

Required

Required

Required

Wind and Solar Environmental and Area Footprint Versus Nuclear, Coal and Gas

 

The A to Z path of extracting, processing and transporting the energy and materials to construct, install and replace millions of short-lived wind turbines and solar panels to generate 50% of world generation would require a much larger “footprint”, than the A to Z path for equivalent generation by nuclear, coal and gas, which have lives of 60, 50, and 40 years, respectively, versus about 20 to 25 years for wind and about 25 years for solar.

http://energyskeptic.com/2018/wind/?fbclid=IwAR3u-kxMrxTGSDHNBS-_-E...

Wind, Solar, Hydro Energy Use by Country

 

This article shows graphs of the various sources of energy for various countries for 1965 - 2017.

 

CIS, the former USSR, is now the Commonwealth of Independent States, i.e., Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

See table 5 and URL

https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/12/21/another-look-at-the-fuel-mix/

 

Table 5

 Other*

Fossil

 

%

%

China

 13.4

 86.6

US

 16.8

83.2

Total Europe

 25.9

74.1

Total CIS

13.0

87.0

Total Middle East

0.8

99.2

India

8.2

91.8

Germany

20.9

79.1

France

47.5

52.5

Norway

68.5

31.5

Denmark

27.0

73.0

* Other = Hydro, nuclear, wind, geothermal /biomass and solar

Area For Replacing US Gasoline With Ethanol, E100, From Corn

 

US Cropland

 

The US planted crops on about 334 million acres in 2017. It would be a miracle, if the US could increase its crop area by 50 million acres. See major crops in table and URLs.

 

http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/current/Acre/Acre-06-29-2018.pdf

See Summary Table 3 of URL.

https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/major-land-uses.aspx

 

Table 6/US cropland, 2017

Million acre

Corn

89.1

Soybean

89.6

Hay

55.0

All wheat

 47.8

All cotton

13.5  

 

US Ethanol from Corn

 

During 2017, the US planted 89.1 million acre in corn, of which 32.214 million acre were for ethanol from corn.

Total ethanol production was 15.936 billion gallon. See table 8.

Click table 10.3, xls of eia URL.

 

https://www.agweb.com/article/usda-2017-corn-production-down-despit...

https://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.php?id=90&t=4

https://www.afdc.energy.gov/data/10339

 

Table 7/Corn

2017

Planted, million acre

89.1

Crop for all uses, billion bushel

14.604

Crop for E100 for blending,  billion bushel

5.280

Yield, bushel/acre

176.6

.

 

Planted for ethanol, all uses, million acre

32.214

Planted for E100 for blending, million acre

29.913

Ethanol production, all uses, billion gallon

15.936

Yield, gal/acre; 1000 x 15.936/32.214

495

E100 production, blending, billion gallon

14.798

Replace US Petro-Gasoline With Ethanol from Corn

US “gasoline” consumption was 142.298 billion gallon in 2017, per EIA

E100 blended with petro-gasoline was 14.798 billion gallon

Petro-gasoline was 128.182 billion gallon

E100 was about 7.06% of the total Btu of “gasoline” consumption, based on LHV

Additional E100 would be 128.182 x 116090/76330 = 194.952 billion gal

Total E100 would be 14.798 + 194.952 = 209.750 billion gallon

Total cropland for E100 would be about 29.913 x 209.750/14.798 = 423.992 million acre to replace all US petro-gasoline with E100. See table 8

 

https://www.uaex.edu/publications/PDF/FSA-1050.pdf

https://www.statista.com/statistics/189410/us-gasoline-and-diesel-c...

NOTE: A fuel has a higher and lower heating value, Btu/gal. Some of the Btus are used during combustion to create water vapor, leaving only the lower heating value, LHV, Btus to perform useful work. Any replacement of

petro-gasoline would be by replacing its LHV Btus with ethanol having an equal LHV Btus. 

https://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/fuel_comparison_chart.pdf

 

Table 8/2017

“Gasoline”

Consumption, 1000 barrel/d

9326.81

gal/barrel

42

TBtu, LHV

“Gasoline”, billion gal, per EIA

142.980

16010.180

Petro-gasoline, billion gal

128.182

14880.648

E100, billion gal

14.798

1129.531

Planted for E100 for blending, million acres

29.913

Additional E100 for blending, billion gal

194.952

Total E100 for blending, billion gal

209.750

Total acres in corn, million acres

423.992

E100, as % of total Btu, LHV

7.06

US Biodiesel (B100) From Soybean and Other Sources

 

The US planted about 89.6 million acres in soybeans in 2017.

The soybean crop, all uses, was 4.390 billion bushel, for a yield of about 4.39 x 1000/89.6 = 49 bushel/acre

 

B100 production required 6.230 billion pounds of soybean oil from 0.532 billion bushels in 2017, or 11.654 lb oil/bushel. See URL.

 

https://unitedsoybean.org/media-center/issue-briefs/biodiesel/

https://www.eia.gov/biofuels/biodiesel/production/

 

The soybean crop for B100 required about 0.532, B100/4.39, all uses x 89.6 = 10.857 million acres.  

https://www.nass.usda.gov/Newsroom/2018/01_12_2018.php

 

B100 produced from soybean oil was 0.826 billion gallon in 2017

B100 from other sources was 0.770 billion gallon. See table 9

 

Click on the 10.4, xls, in the URL to see the values in table

https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/index.php#renewable

 

NOTE: Renewable diesel is made from used, petro-based grease and used, petro-based lubricating oils. It is not B100. Its CO2eq has to be counted.

 

Table 9

million gallon

Tbtu, LHV

B100 from soybeans

826

98.748

B100 from other sources

770

92.054

B100 total production

1596

190.802

Imports

301

35.985

Inventory

88

10.520

B100, total consumption

1985

237.307

 

Total US diesel fuel consumption was 45.833 billion gallon in 2017, which included 1985 billion gallon of B100. See table 10

https://www.statista.com/statistics/189410/us-gasoline-and-diesel-c...

 

Table 10

 

B100 from soybeans

2017

Crop, bushel/acre/y

49

Weight, lb/bushel

60

Crop weight, lb/acre

2940

Oil, lb/bushel; see URL

11.654

Oil, lb/acre/y

571

Process yield

0.973

B100 yield , lb/acre/y

556

Weight, lb/gal

7.3

B100 yield, gal/acre/y

76

B100 yield, gal/bu

1.55

.

Soybeans, billion bu; see URL

0.532

Area, million acres

10.857

Area For Replacing US Petro Diesel Fuel With B100 from Soybeans

Replace US Petro-Diesel with B100 from Soybeans

US “diesel” consumption was 45,833 billion gal in 2017, per EIA

B100 blended with petro-diesel was 1,985 billion gal from various sources. See table 6.

Petro-diesel was 43.848 billion gal

B100 was about 4.00% of the total Btu of “diesel” consumption, based on LHV

Additional B100 would be 43.848 x 129488/119550 = 47,493 billion gal, based on LHV.

Total B100 would be 1.985, existing + 47.493, new = 49.478 billion gal

Total cropland for B100 would be about 49.478 billion gal/76 gal/acre = 651 million acres, if no imports. See table 9

https://www.statista.com/statistics/189410/us-gasoline-and-diesel-c...

 

Table 9/2017

"Diesel"

Petro-diesel in blend

Petro-diesel

Consumption, 1000 barrel/d

2989.78

Consumption, 1000 barrel/y

1091270

gal/barrel

42

Consumption, billion gallon/y

45.833

1.985

43.848

Tbtu, LHV

5934.866

237.307

5697.559

B100 in blend, % of Btus

4.00

Additional B100 to replace diesel, b gallon

47.493

Total B100, billion gallon

49.478

Yield, gal/acre

76

Total acres, million

651

.

HHV, Btu/gal

138490

127960

LHV, Btu/gal

129488

119550

Additional Sources of Information:

 

https://ethanolrfa.org/resources/industry/statistics/#1537811482060...

https://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_psup_a_EPM0F_VPP_mbbl_a.htm

https://www.agmrc.org/renewable-energy/renewable-energy-climate-cha...

https://ethanolrfa.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/2017-U.S.-Ethanol...

 

APPENDIX 1

Increased Renewables per Capita Leads to Higher Household Electric Rates

The below graph shows countries with high levels of wind, solar, etc., also have high levels of household electric rates.

Politicians and bureaucrats find ways to place the cost burden of renewables (such as subsidies, grants, taxes, fees and surcharges) mostly on households, but give a free pass to the industrial and commercial sectors for "competitive reasons"

Industry and commerce are vastly better organized and have vastly more political clout, and are much less easily swayed/bamboozled/conned than households.

APPENDIX 2

"Fossil fuels are essential for making wind turbines, as Robert Wilson explains in Can You Make a Wind Turbine Without Fossil Fuels?"

"Oil is used from start to finish; from mining to crushing ore and smelting it; to delivery to the supply chain fabrication plants for the 8,000 parts in a turbine; to the final delivery to the site and erection.

Cement trucks drive to the delivery site over roads built by diesel powered road equipment.

The roads are paved with asphalt made from refinery tar.

Fossil-made cement and steel rebar is required for the wind turbine foundations.

Diesel trucks haul the components of the turbine to the installation place, and diesel cranes lift the turbine sections and 8,000 parts upward.

There are no electric blast furnaces, only fossil fueled ones to make cement and most steel.

There are no electric mining trucks, electric long haul trucks to deliver the 8,000 parts made all over the world, nor electric cement trucks, electric cranes, etc.

That means, even if a wind turbine could generate enough energy to replicate itself, it wouldn’t matter, the A-to-Z process would need to be electrified."

 

"Not only would windmills have to generate enough power to reproduce themselves, but they have to make enough power above and beyond that to fuel the rest of civilization.

Think of the energy to make the cement and steel of a 300-foot tower with three 150-foot rotor blades sweeping an acre of air at 150 miles per hour. 

The turbine housing alone weighs over 56 tons, the blade assembly 36 tons, and the whole tower assembly over 163 tons. 

Florida Power & Light says a typical turbine site is a 42 by 42 foot area with a 30-foot hole filled with tons of steel rebar-reinforced concrete; about 1,250 tons of foundation to hold the 300-foot tower in place (per Rosenbloom)."

APPENDIX 3

High Levels of Wind and Solar

 

High levels of wind and solar, say 60% of NE grid annual load (the rest supplied by other sources), could not ever stand on their own, without the NE grid having:

 

- Much more robust connections to nearby grids (Canada, New York State), plus

- Gas turbine plants and reservoir/run-of-river hydro plants that could quickly vary their outputs to compensate for the quickly varying outputs of wind and solar, including very lowoutputs of wind and solar, which occur at random, at least 30% of the hours of the year, according to minute-by-minute generation data posted by ISO-NE.

 

If high levels of wind and solar were built out after a few decades, and the gas turbine, nuclear, coal and oil plants were closed down (according to RE proponent wishes), and with existing connections to nearby grids, and with existing reservoir/run-of-river hydro plants, and with existing other sources, the NE grid would require 6 - 8 TWh of storage to cover 5 to 7 day wind/solar lulls, which occur at random, and to cover seasonal variations (storing wind when it is more plentiful during fall, winter and spring, and when solar is more plentiful in summer, so more of their electricity would be available in summer when wind usually is at very low levels). See URLs.

 

That storage would need to have a minimal level at all times (about 10 days of demand coverage), to cover multi-day, scheduled and unscheduled equipment and system outages and unusual multi-day weather events, such as a big snow fall covering the solar panels andminimal wind.

 

- One TWh of storage costs about $400 billion, at $400/kWh, or $100 billion at a Holy Grail $100/kWh.

- Any electricity passing through storage has about a 20% loss, on a high voltage AC-to-high voltage AC basis, to be made up by additional wind, solar and other generation.

- Any electricity fed to EVs and plug-in hybrids has about a 20% charging and resting loss, from wall meter to “in battery”, as indicated by the vehicle meter, to be made up by additional wind, solar, and other generation. See URLs.

 

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/tesla-model-3-long-term...

 http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/daily-shifting-of-wind-...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/new-england-will-need-t...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/vermont-example-of-elec...;

APPENDIX 4

Wind and Solar Conditions in New England: New England has highly variable weather and low-medium quality wind and solar conditions. See NREL wind map and NREL solar map.

 

https://www.nrel.gov/gis/images/100m_wind/awstwspd100onoff3-1.jpg

https://www.nrel.gov/gis/images/solar/national_photovoltaic_2009-01...

 

Wind:

- Wind electricity is zero about 30% of the hours of the year (it takes a wind speed of about 7 mph to start the rotors)

- Wind is minimal most early mornings and most late afternoons/early evenings (peak demand hours), especially during summer

- Wind often is minimal 5 - 7 days in a row in summer and winter, as proven by ISO-NE real-time generation data.

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/daily-shifting-of-wind-...

- About 60% is generated at night, when demand is much less than during the late afternoons/early evenings

- About 60% is generated in winter.

- During winter, the best wind month is up to 2.5 times the worst summer month

- New England has the lowest capacity factor (about 0.262) of any US region, except the US South. See URL.

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=20112

 

Solar:

- Solar electricity is strictly a midday affair.

- It is zero about 65% of the hours of the year, mostly at night.

- It often is minimal 5 - 7 days in a row in summer and in winter, as proven by ISO-NE real-time generation data.

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/daily-shifting-of-wind-...

- It is minimal early mornings and late afternoons/early evenings

- It is minimal much of the winter months

- It is minimal for several days with snow and ice on most of the panels.

- It varies with variable cloudiness, which would excessively disturb distribution grids with many solar systems, as happens in southern California and southern Germany on a daily basis. Utilities use batteries to stabilize their grids.

- During summer, the best solar month is up to 4 times the worst winter month; that ratio is 6 in Germany.

- New England has the lowest capacity factor (about 0.145, under ideal conditions) of any region in the US, except some parts of the US Northwest.

 

NOTE: Even if the NE grid had large capacity connections with Canada and New York, any major NE wind lull and any major NE snowfall likely would affect the entire US northeast, i.e., relying on neighboring grids to "help-out" likely would not be prudent strategy.

 

Wind Plus Solar:

ISO-NE publishes the minute-by-minute outputs off various energy sources contributing their electricity to the grid.

All one has to do is add the wind and solar and one comes rapidly to the conclusion both are minimal many hours of the year, at any time during the year.

 

- Wind plus solar production could be minimal for 5 - 7 days in summer and in winter, especially with snow and ice on most of the panels, as frequently happens during December, January and February, as proven by ISO-NE real-time generation data.

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/daily-shifting-of-wind-...

 

If we were to rely on wind and solar for most of our electricity, massive energy storage systems (a few hundred GWh-scale for Vermont, multiple TWh-scale for NE) would be required to cover multi-day wind lulls, multi-day overcast/snowy periods, and seasonal variations. See URLs.

 

Wind and solar cannot ever be expected to charge New England’s EVs, so people can get to work the next day, unless backed up by several TWh of storage, because wind/solar lulls can occur for 5 - 7 days in a row, in summer and in winter. BTW, the turnkey capital cost of one TWH of storage (delivered as AC to the grid) is about $400 billion.

 

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/wind-and-solar-energy-l...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/vermont-example-of-elec...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/seasonal-pumped-hydro-s...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/electricity-storage-to-...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/pumped-storage-hydro-in...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/wind-and-solar-hype-ver...

APPENDIX 5

Hydro-Quebec Electricity Generation and Purchases: Google this URL for the 2017 facts. The H-Q electricity supply is an order of magnitude cleaner than the Vermont supply.
http://www.hydroquebec.com/sustainable-development/energy-environme...

 

2017

GWh

Hydropower generated 

177091

Purchased

44006

- Hydro

31610

- Wind

9634

- Biomass and waste reclamation 

2021

- Other

741

Total RE generated and purchased

221097

 

NOTE: Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, plus three thermal generating stations (Tracy, La Citière and Cadillac) were shut down.

 

Hydro-Quebec Export Electricity: H-Q net exports were 34.4 TWh/y in 2017; provided 27% of H-Q net income, or $780 million, i.e., very profitable.

 

H-Q export revenue was $1,651 million in 2017, or 1641/34.4 = 4.8 c/kWh.

See page 24 of Annual Report URL.

This is for a mix of old and new contracts.

Revenue = 1641

Net profit = 780

Cost = 1641 - 780 = 861

Average cost of H-Q generation = 861/34.4 = 2.5 c/kWh

 

GMP buys H-Q electricity, at the Vermont border, for 5.549 c/kWh, under a recent contract. GMP buys at 5.549 c/kWh, per GMP spreadsheet titled “GMP Test Year Power Supply Costs filed as VPSB Docket No: Attachment D, Schedule 2, April 14, 2017”.

H-Q is eager to sell more of its surplus electricity to New England and New York.

 

That is at least 50% less than ridgeline wind and large-scale field-mounted solar, which are heavily subsidized to make their electricity appear to be less costly than reality. 

 

GMP sells to me at 19 c/kWh, per rate schedule. Consumers pricing for electricity is highly political. That is implemented by rate setting, taxes, fees, surcharges, etc., mostly on household electric bills, as in Denmark and Germany, etc. The rate setting is influenced by protecting “RE policy objectives”, which include highly subsidized, expensive microgrids, islanding, batteries and net metered solar and heat pumps.

 

http://www.hydroquebec.com/sustainable-development/energy-environme...

http://news.hydroquebec.com/en/press-releases/1338/annual-report-2917/

http://www.hydroquebec.com/data/documents-donnees/pdf/annual-report...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/green-mountain-power-co...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/increased-canadian-hydr...

APPENDIX 6

Higher and Lower Heating Values of Fuels

The higher heating value, HHV, is the heat content in a fuel, such as Btu/lb

The lower heating value, LHV, is the heat content in a fuel available to an internal combustion engine.

 

Any replacement of petro-diesel fuel and petro-gasoline would be by replacing their total Btus, based on LHVs, with biofuels having an equal total Btus, based on LHVs.

 

- E10, usually called gasoline, also called gasohol, is a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol, E100, from corn.

- B100 is 100% biodiesel

- B20 is a blend of 80% petro-diesel and 20% B100

See table 3 and URL.

https://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/fuel_comparison_chart.pdf

https://h2tools.org/hyarc/calculator-tools/lower-and-higher-heating...

Table

Ethanol

Gasoline

E10 (90/10)

Petro-diesel, LS

B100

B20 (80/20)

NG

LNG

HHV, Btu/gal

84530

124340

120359

138490

127960

136384

22453

23735

LHV, Btu/gal

76330

116090

112114

129488

119550

127500

20267

20908

Views: 270

Comment

You need to be a member of Citizens' Task Force on Wind Power - Maine to add comments!

Join Citizens' Task Force on Wind Power - Maine

Comment by Willem Post on December 26, 2018 at 10:17pm

Hi Dan,

Addition:

Often overlooked is the A to Z path is paved with fossil fuels residue.

Asphalt is made from refinery tar.

I will add you comment as an Appendix.

Comment by Dan McKay on December 26, 2018 at 3:59pm

FROM : 

41 Reasons why wind power can not replace fossil fuels

"Fossil fuels are essential for making wind turbines, as Robert Wilson explains in Can You Make a Wind Turbine Without Fossil Fuels?"

"Oil is used from start to finish — from mining to crushing ore and smelting it, to delivery to the fabrication plant to the supply chains for 8,000 parts in a turbine to the final delivery site. Cement trucks drive to the delivery site over roads built by diesel powered road equipment, fossil made cement and steel rebar to pour the foundations wind turbines sit on, diesel trucks haul the components of the turbine to the installation place, and diesel cranes lift the turbine sections and 8,000 parts upward. There are no electric blast furnaces, only fossil fueled ones to make cement and most steel, nor are there electric mining trucks, electric long haul trucks to deliver the 8,000 parts made all over the world, electric cement trucks, electric cranes, and so on. That means even if a wind turbine could generate enough energy to replicate itself, it wouldn’t matter, the process from start to finish needs to be electrified."

"Not only would windmills have to generate enough power to reproduce themselves, but they have to make enough power above and beyond that to fuel the rest of civilization. Think of the energy to make the cement and steel of a 300 foot tower with three 150 foot rotor blades sweeping an acre of air at 100 miles per hour.  The turbine housing alone weighs over 56 tons, the blade assembly 36 tons, and the whole tower assembly is over 163 tons.  Florida Power & Light says a typical turbine site is 42 by 42 foot area with a 30 foot hole filled with tons of steel rebar-reinforced concrete –about 1,250 tons to hold the 300 foot tower in place (Rosenbloom)."

Hannah Pingree on the Maine expedited wind law

Hannah Pingree - Director of Maine's Office of Innovation and the Future

"Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine."

https://pinetreewatch.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/

 

Maine as Third World Country:

CMP Transmission Rate Skyrockets 19.6% Due to Wind Power

 

Click here to read how the Maine ratepayer has been sold down the river by the Angus King cabal.

Maine Center For Public Interest Reporting – Three Part Series: A CRITICAL LOOK AT MAINE’S WIND ACT

******** IF LINKS BELOW DON'T WORK, GOOGLE THEM*********

(excerpts) From Part 1 – On Maine’s Wind Law “Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine if the law’s goals were met." . – Maine Center for Public Interest Reporting, August 2010 https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/From Part 2 – On Wind and Oil Yet using wind energy doesn’t lower dependence on imported foreign oil. That’s because the majority of imported oil in Maine is used for heating and transportation. And switching our dependence from foreign oil to Maine-produced electricity isn’t likely to happen very soon, says Bartlett. “Right now, people can’t switch to electric cars and heating – if they did, we’d be in trouble.” So was one of the fundamental premises of the task force false, or at least misleading?" https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-swept-task-force-set-the-rules/From Part 3 – On Wind-Required New Transmission Lines Finally, the building of enormous, high-voltage transmission lines that the regional electricity system operator says are required to move substantial amounts of wind power to markets south of Maine was never even discussed by the task force – an omission that Mills said will come to haunt the state.“If you try to put 2,500 or 3,000 megawatts in northern or eastern Maine – oh, my god, try to build the transmission!” said Mills. “It’s not just the towers, it’s the lines – that’s when I begin to think that the goal is a little farfetched.” https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/flaws-in-bill-like-skating-with-dull-skates/

Not yet a member?

Sign up today and lend your voice and presence to the steadily rising tide that will soon sweep the scourge of useless and wretched turbines from our beloved Maine countryside. For many of us, our little pieces of paradise have been hard won. Did the carpetbaggers think they could simply steal them from us?

We have the facts on our side. We have the truth on our side. All we need now is YOU.

“First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.”

 -- Mahatma Gandhi

"It's not whether you get knocked down: it's whether you get up."
Vince Lombardi 

Task Force membership is free. Please sign up today!

© 2019   Created by Webmaster.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service