Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation 1982 (Infra-Sound)

Scientist Neil Kelley: National Renewable Energy Laboratory | NREL · Wind Technology Center Master of Science

Methodology for Assessment of Wind Turbine Noise Generation 1982
Neil Kelley: National Renewable Energy LaboratoryNational Wind Technology Center, Principal Scientist (Atmospheric Physics) Retired\

Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colo. 80401
1982, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 104, pp 112-120
The detailed analysis of a series of acoustic measurements taken near several large wind turbines (100 kW and above) has identified the maximum acoustic energy as being concentrated in the low-frequency audible and subaudible ranges, usually less than 100 Hz. These measurements have also shown any reported community annoyance.
Introduction Until the fall of 1979, noise from large wind turbines had not been a major concern.
The situation changed however as the 2 MW, MOD-1 turbine installed near Boone, North Carolina began to undergo a series of operational tests which resulted in a number of sporadic and totally unexpected noise complaints from a few residents living within 3 km of the installation.
Since that time, a considerable effort has been undertaken by a number of organizations who have studied the phenomena to find out the exact nature of the noise responsible for annoying the neighbors, its origin and production mechanism, its propagation path, and what could be done to eliminate or at least reduce it to below perceptible levels. Some of the results of these studies have been reported previously
[1]. To date, acoustically-related annoyance from large wind turbines has been confined to a dozen families living within 3 km of the MOD-1. There have been no documented complaints of noise the author is aware of with any of the four MOD-OA turbines currently operating, and two surveys of the MOD-2 turbine have failed to find a tendency for impulsive noise generation similar to the MOD-1 in the measurements taken so far
[3, 4]. Some impulsive noise has been detected in a recent survey of the 17-m Darrieus/VAWT
[5]. The situation in Boone, however, has been severe enough to warrant a close examination of the details of the MOD-1 Contributed by the Solar Energy Division and presented at the 5th Biennial Wind Energy Conference and Workshop, Washington, D.C.,
October 5-7, 1981. Manuscript received by the Solar Energy Division March 4, 1982. experience.
The causal factors responsible for the noise had to be identified; this information would then be used to develop a methodology to assess the annoyance potential of other wind turbine designs by measuring their acoustic radiation with reference to the MOD-1 data.
Wind Turbine Infra Sound Boone North Carolina 1985
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH-10093. Noise complaints related to the DOE/NASA MOD-l wind turbine.
Infra Sound, Boone, North Carolina 1985
Prepared under Task Nos. 1066.70 and 4803.10 WPA No. 171A Solar Energy Research Institute A Division of Midwest Research Institute 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401
Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-83CH-10093
Neil Kelley, Principal Scientist --Wind Energy Section


FYI  Falmouth Massachusetts 

Note #Falmouth Massachusetts: The state courts in June 2017 shut down (2) two 1.65 Megawatt town-owned wind turbines each turbine generates 110 decibels of noise equal to a hard rock band playing 24/7

One turbine at 110 decibels of noise creates infra-sound or what is called "Human Annoyance"

The Town of Falmouth installed the two turbines without a noise study for both turbines operating at the same time.

The turbines were installed without permits or zoning board hearings.

These were the first-megawatt wind turbines installed in Massachusetts.

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Maine Center For Public Interest Reporting – Three Part Series: A CRITICAL LOOK AT MAINE’S WIND ACT


(excerpts) From Part 1 – On Maine’s Wind Law “Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine if the law’s goals were met." . – Maine Center for Public Interest Reporting, August 2010 Part 2 – On Wind and Oil Yet using wind energy doesn’t lower dependence on imported foreign oil. That’s because the majority of imported oil in Maine is used for heating and transportation. And switching our dependence from foreign oil to Maine-produced electricity isn’t likely to happen very soon, says Bartlett. “Right now, people can’t switch to electric cars and heating – if they did, we’d be in trouble.” So was one of the fundamental premises of the task force false, or at least misleading?" Part 3 – On Wind-Required New Transmission Lines Finally, the building of enormous, high-voltage transmission lines that the regional electricity system operator says are required to move substantial amounts of wind power to markets south of Maine was never even discussed by the task force – an omission that Mills said will come to haunt the state.“If you try to put 2,500 or 3,000 megawatts in northern or eastern Maine – oh, my god, try to build the transmission!” said Mills. “It’s not just the towers, it’s the lines – that’s when I begin to think that the goal is a little farfetched.”

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Hannah Pingree on the Maine expedited wind law

Hannah Pingree - Director of Maine's Office of Innovation and the Future

"Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine."

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