WORLD COAL CONSUMPTION AND PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION

The world’s fossil fuel consumption has been about 78% of all primary energy* for the past 10 years, despite several trillion dollars of investments in RE systems. Current coal consumption is about 8000 million metric ton/y. China and India use about 60%.

 

* The energy from wells, mines, forests, etc., is called source energy, less exploration, extraction, processing and transport energy = primary energy to power plants, buildings, vehicles, industry, commerce, and transportation, etc.

 

NOTE: IPCC/UNEP estimates reducing world CO2eq from the “business as usual” projection of 64.7 billion Mt in 2030 by 30 to 40 billion Mt during 16 years (2017 - 2030), would require $30 to $40 trillion, about $1.9 to $2.5 trillion/y, starting immediately. The world’s current level of investment in CO2 reduction is about $280 billion/y, the average of the past 6 years.

  

http://www.dw.com/en/climate-change-world-way-off-track-on-paris-ac...

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/the-world-making-almost...

Replacing Old Coal Plants With New Coal Plants: China and India have hundreds of older, low efficiency (0.30 or less), sub-critical, coal plants with low-efficiency (0.95 or less) air pollution control systems. Such plants have high Btu/kWh, high CO2/kWh and high particulates/kWh. As a result, China and India have severe air pollution problems. The prevailing winds transport that pollution in an eastern direction around the world.

 

China and India should be closing these plants and replacing them with hundreds of high efficiency (0.44), ultra-super-critical coal plants with high-efficiency (0.995) air pollution control systems, such as fabric filter systems. Such plants have low Btu/kWh, low CO2/kWh and very low particulates/kWh. China and India would significantly reduce their coal consumption, CO2 emissions and pollution. See URLs.

China Electricity Generation in 2016, TWh: Go to URL, click on China Energy Portal to get latest data for 2016. China consumed about 3.9 billion Mt of coal. China produced 50% more electricity than the US.

https://blog.energybrainpool.com/en/power-statistics-china-2016-hug...

 

Table 1 A/2016 TWh % Comment
Coal 3905.8 65.2
Gas 188.1 3.1 Gas to double by 2025
Other thermal 194.7 3.3
Nuclear 213.2 3.6 Nuclear to double by 2025
Hydro 1150.1 19.2
Pumped storage 30.6 0.5
Wind 241.0 4.0
Solar 66.2 1.1
Total 5989.7 100.0
US 4100.0

Future New Coal Plants: Worldwide, about 1600 new coal plants are under construction and in planning stages in 62 countries, according to Urgewald’s tally, which uses data from the Global Coal Plant Tracker portal. The new plants, minus retirements, would expand the world’s coal-fired capacity, MW, by 43 percent. Hopefully that additional capacity would be much more efficient and have high-efficiency air pollution control systems. See table 1.

 

https://www.equaltimes.org/japan-stubbornly-sticks-to-coal - .WaGFl...

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamestaylor/2017/07/07/global-coal-pow...

https://wattsupwiththat.com/2017/07/03/forget-paris-1600-new-coal-p...

 

Table 1/Country

Existing

Cancelled

 New

Total

MW addition

China

2363

 103

 1171

3534

 

India

589

 ?

 446

1035

 

EU28

468

?

27

495

 

Turkey

56

?

93

149

 

Japan

90

?

45

135

22000

South Africa

79

?

24

103

 

South Korea

58

?

26

84

 

Philippines

19

?

60

79

 

 

Coal Plant Pollution Control Systems: Modern coal plants in Europe and the US have pollution control systems with efficiencies of about 0.995 (about 5 lb per 1000 lb of flyash particulates is released to the atmosphere). In China and India, the norm is 0.950 or less (at least 50 lb per 1000 lb is released to the atmosphere).

 

New Coal Plant in China: During the past few years, China has placed in operation a few high-efficiency coal plants. The new plants have efficiencies of 0.38 (sub-critical), 0.42 (super-critical) and 0.44 (ultra-super-critical), and have high-efficiency pollution control systems.

 

NOTE: Coal heat content (HHV) is about 19.5 million Btu/US ton, or 21.50 million Btu/Mt. Combustion CO2 is about 210 lb/million Btu (primary energy basis).

The below table 2 shows a comparison of the performance of plants with various efficiencies. Especially note the very high particulates/kWh for plants with low-efficiency air pollution controls systems. Old plants with low-efficiency air pollution control systems emit at least 11 times more particulate/kWh than new plants.

https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/classification-coal-d_164.html

 

Table 2/ Plant type

0ld subcritical

Sub-critical

Super-critical

Ultra-super-critical

MW

1000

1000

1000

1000

h/y

8766

8766

8766

8766

Capacity factor

0.85

0.85

0.85

0.85

MWh/y out as electricity

7451100

7451100

7451100

7451100

Efficiency

0.33

0.38

0.42

0.44

MWh/y in as heat

22579091

19608158

17740714

16934318

Btu/MWh

3412000

3412000

3412001

3412002

million Btu/y in as heat

77039858

66903035

60531335

57779928

lb CO2/million Btu

210

210

210

210

lb CO2/y

16178370218

14049637295

12711580326

12133784776

lb/Mt

2204.62

2204.62

2204.62

2204.62

Mt CO2/y

7338394

6372816

5765883

5503799

Mt CO2/h

837

727

658

628

million Btu/Mt coal.

21.5

21.5

21.5

21.5

Mt coal/y

3583249

3111769

2815411

2687438

Mt coal/h

409

355

321

307

Mt CO2/Mt Coal

2.048

2.048

2.048

2.048

Btu/kWh

10339

8979

8124

7755

lb CO2/kWh

2.171

1.886

1.706

1.628

Ash fraction

0.08

0.08

0.08

0.08

Flyash fraction

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

g Flyash/kWh, as is

19.236

16.705

15.114

14.427

Collection efficiency

0.95

0.995

0.995

0.995

g Flyash/kWh, treated

0.962

0.084

0.076

0.072

Pollution Old/ New

11.5

12.7

13.3

 

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Maine Center For Public Interest Reporting – Three Part Series: A CRITICAL LOOK AT MAINE’S WIND ACT (excerpts) From Part 1 – On Maine’s Wind Law “Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine if the law’s goals were met." . – Maine Center for Public Interest Reporting, August 2010  http://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/From Part 2 – On Wind and Oil Yet using wind energy doesn’t lower dependence on imported foreign oil. That’s because the majority of imported oil in Maine is used for heating and transportation. And switching our dependence from foreign oil to Maine-produced electricity isn’t likely to happen very soon, says Bartlett. “Right now, people can’t switch to electric cars and heating – if they did, we’d be in trouble.” So was one of the fundamental premises of the task force false, or at least misleading?"  http://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-swept-task-force-set-the-rules/From Part 3 – On Wind-Required New Transmission Lines Finally, the building of enormous, high-voltage transmission lines that the regional electricity system operator says are required to move substantial amounts of wind power to markets south of Maine was never even discussed by the task force – an omission that Mills said will come to haunt the state.“If you try to put 2,500 or 3,000 megawatts in northern or eastern Maine – oh, my god, try to build the transmission!” said Mills. “It’s not just the towers, it’s the lines – that’s when I begin to think that the goal is a little farfetched.” http://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/flaws-in-bill-like-skating-with-dull-skates/

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