Source energy is the energy taken from the earth, such as from a well, a mine, a forest. The energy for exploration, extraction, processing and transport is used to convert the source energy to primary energy for the US economy. The US electrical system uses about 40% of all primary energy.

 

- Source energy is the energy taken from coal mines, oil and gas wells, and forests for conversion to electricity and heat.

- Primary energy = source energy - energy used for exploration, extraction, processing and transport of fuels (coal, oil, gas, biofuels, wastes, etc.) to users, such as fuel to electricity generating plants, or process plants, or buildings, or vehicles, etc. That means it has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process.

- Consumed energy by users = net electricity generation (fed to grid) + electricity imports (fed to grid)  + fuel to process plants, or buildings, or vehicles, etc.

- Gross electricity generation = primary energy (fuel to power plants) x plant efficiency.

- Net electricity generation = gross generation - plant self-use = fed to grid. 

- Electricity at user meters = fed to grid - transmission & distribution losses.

 

For exploration and extraction mostly diesel and electricity are used.

For processing mostly diesel, natural gas and electricity are used.

For transport mostly diesel is used.

 

Table 1

Well/mine/forest-to-user source factor

 

Diesel

1.2240

Gasoline

1.2500

See table 2

Natural Gas

1.0900

 

Electricity

 2.8776

See table 3

 

A combination of these energies leads to a source factor of the US electrical system of about 1.08, i.e., the equivalent of about 8% of the source energy is used to obtain the primary energy fed to power plants. Excluded is the embedded energy of all the required infrastructures.

 

NOTE: Also there is the energy consumed for Operations & Maintenance and on-going replacements/upgrading of the infrastructures used for exploration, extraction, processing and transport of the source energy. That energy and its CO2 are counted separately.

 

CO2 Emissions of Gasoline and E10: E10 fuel (90% gasoline/10% ethanol) has a source energy, which is reduced due to exploration, extraction, processing and transport, to become the primary energy fed to E10 vehicles. See URL.

http://www.patagoniaalliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/How-muc...

 

Table 2 shows a calculation of lb CO2/gallon of E10, with combustion CO2 of ethanol counted and not counted. EPA uses a source factor of 1.25 for gasoline to account for upstream. See table 2.

 

It is painfully obvious, there is almost no reduction in CO2due to the ethanol from corn program, which requires billions of dollars of annual subsidies and the cropping of 30 million acres to provide just 10% of the US E10 fuel supply.

http://www.windtaskforce.org/profiles/blogs/politically-inspired-ma...

 

Table 2/Source CO2

Combustion

E10

 lb CO2/gal

lb CO2/gal

100% gasoline combustion CO2

19.640

E10 is 90% gasoline

0.90 x 19.640

17.676

E10, upstream part, per EPA

0.25 x 17.676

4.419

E10; combustion plus upstream of gasoline part

22.095

.

100% Ethanol

12.720

E10 is 10% ethanol

0.10 x 12.720

1.272

Ethanol upstream; cropping, processing, blending

13.556

E10, upstream past; cropping, processing, blending

0.10 x 13.556

1.356

.

Total, if all E10 CO2 is counted

22.095 + 1.356 + 1.272

24.723

Total, if ethanol combustion CO2 is not counted

22.095 + 1.356

23.451

Total 100% gasoline, including upstream

1.25 x 19.640, per EPA

24.550

Source Factor of US Electrical System: The US economy was supplied with about 25,451.00 TWh of primary energy in 2013. See Table 6. In this analysis, I used the 2013 emission data in conjunction with the 2013 electricity generation data. 

 

The EIA 2013 emissions data was higher than at present, mainly due to gas replacing coal. It is ironic, I could find the 2016 GERMAN electricity generation data, but not the 2016 US data.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_in_the_United_States

 

Item

Table 3

%

TWh

1

Source energy

100.00

27664.00

2

Expl./Extr./Proc./Transp.

8.00

2213.00

3

Primary energy, per URL

92.00

25451.00

3a

Electrical PE = 0.4 of 3, per URL

 

10180.40

4

Electrical SE = 3a/0.92

 

11065.65

5

Gross generation

 

4227.62

6

Self-use

3.82

161.55

7

Net generation to grid, per EIA

 

4065.97

8

Conversion factor = 7/3a

 

0.3994

9

Imports, per EIA

1.15

46.74

10

Total to grid, per EIA

 

4112.71

11

T&D, % of To grid, per EIA

6.50

267.33

12

To electric meters

 

3845.38

13

System efficiency, PE basis = 12/3a

 

0.3777

15

System efficiency, SE basis = 12/4

 

0.3475

16

Source factor = 1/0.3475

 

2.8776

CO2 Emission Intensity of US Electrical System: The total CO2 emissions were 2053 million metric ton in 2013, and 1821 MMt in 2016, due to less coal and more gas burning.

 

Table 4

Year

2013

2016

CO2, MMt

2053

1821

To meters, TWh

3845.38

3845.38

kg CO2/kWh

0.5339

0.4736

lb/kg

2.2046

2.2046

lb CO2/kWh, PE basis

1.1770

1.0440

Upstream factor

1.08

1.08

lb CO2/kWh, SE basis

1.2712

1.1275

g/lb

454

454

g CO2/kWh, SE basis

577

512

 

https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=18511

 

CO2 Emissions of New England Electrical System: NE grid CO2 intensity was 726 lb/MWh, or 0.726 lb/kWh, or 726/2204.62 = 0.3293 metric ton/MWh, on a primary energy basis. This is low compared to the US and many other local grids, because of the high percentage of low-CO2 hydro, nuclear and gas on the NE grid. See Table 5.1 of URL.

 

ISO-NE calculates Vermont CO2 emissions at 210 lb/MWh, based on electricity supplied to utilities. The woodchip-fired McNeil and Ryegate power plants emit almost all of the CO2.

 

CO2 emissions allocated to Vermont = 6,100,000 MWh/y x 210 lb/MWh = 640,500 ton/y, or 581,053 Mt/y, i.e., the CO2 of the in-state generated electricity is spread out over the electricity supply to utilities. See Table 5.1 of URL.

https://www.iso-ne.com/static-assets/documents/2016/01/2014_emissio...

 

Table 5‐1

2014 New England System
Annual Average NOX, SO2, and CO2 Emission Rates (lb/MWh)

 

State

NOx

SO2

CO2

Connecticut

0.29

0.11

592

Maine

0.43

0.28

838

Massachusetts

0.54

0.35

932

New Hampshire

0.40

0.29

665

Rhode Island

0.19

0.01

945

Vermont

0.10

0.01

210

New England

0.38

0.22

726

NOTE: Vermont has a low electrical CO2/kWh. ISO-NE estimates it at 210 lb/MWh. Burlington, a major city in Vermont, is NOT 100% renewable (as it claims), because almost all of Vermont's ELECTRICAL CO2 is from wood-fired McNeil in Burlington, and that is renewable only on a 50 - 100 year basis, provided the forest, from which the trees were taken, would still be there to do the absorbing and that the forest CO2 absorption/acre is unimpaired by development, clear-cutting, disease, etc.

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Hannah Pingree on the Maine expedited wind law

Hannah Pingree - Director of Maine's Office of Innovation and the Future

"Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine."

https://pinetreewatch.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/

 

Maine as Third World Country:

CMP Transmission Rate Skyrockets 19.6% Due to Wind Power

 

Click here to read how the Maine ratepayer has been sold down the river by the Angus King cabal.

Maine Center For Public Interest Reporting – Three Part Series: A CRITICAL LOOK AT MAINE’S WIND ACT

******** IF LINKS BELOW DON'T WORK, GOOGLE THEM*********

(excerpts) From Part 1 – On Maine’s Wind Law “Once the committee passed the wind energy bill on to the full House and Senate, lawmakers there didn’t even debate it. They passed it unanimously and with no discussion. House Majority Leader Hannah Pingree, a Democrat from North Haven, says legislators probably didn’t know how many turbines would be constructed in Maine if the law’s goals were met." . – Maine Center for Public Interest Reporting, August 2010 https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-power-bandwagon-hits-bumps-in-the-road-3/From Part 2 – On Wind and Oil Yet using wind energy doesn’t lower dependence on imported foreign oil. That’s because the majority of imported oil in Maine is used for heating and transportation. And switching our dependence from foreign oil to Maine-produced electricity isn’t likely to happen very soon, says Bartlett. “Right now, people can’t switch to electric cars and heating – if they did, we’d be in trouble.” So was one of the fundamental premises of the task force false, or at least misleading?" https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/wind-swept-task-force-set-the-rules/From Part 3 – On Wind-Required New Transmission Lines Finally, the building of enormous, high-voltage transmission lines that the regional electricity system operator says are required to move substantial amounts of wind power to markets south of Maine was never even discussed by the task force – an omission that Mills said will come to haunt the state.“If you try to put 2,500 or 3,000 megawatts in northern or eastern Maine – oh, my god, try to build the transmission!” said Mills. “It’s not just the towers, it’s the lines – that’s when I begin to think that the goal is a little farfetched.” https://www.pinetreewatchdog.org/flaws-in-bill-like-skating-with-dull-skates/

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