WIND ENERGY CO2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS ARE OVERSTATED
Because wind energy is variable and intermittent, it requires backup by quick-ramping, open cycle gas turbine generators that ramp up when wind energy ebbs and ramp down when it surges which occurs at least 100 times per day. Such part-load-ramping operation is inefficient and requires extra fuel/kWh and emits extra CO2/kWh. The extras offset a significant part of what wind energy was meant to reduce, as proven by studies of the Irish, Texas and Colorado grid operations data. The studies are based on 1/4-hour and 1-hour grid operations data.
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